Курсовая работа на тему "Difficulties connected with translation of scientific terms. Methods of tra
Курсовая работа на тему "Difficulties connected with translation of scientific terms. Methods of translation" (500 руб.)
Chapter I. Definition of term. Structure of English economic terms…….…….....4
Chapter II. Difficulties connected with translation of scientific terms.
Methods of translation………………………………………………………….…10
Chapter III. Translation of English economic terms into Russian……….……..14
List of literature
Scientific translations are an integral part of work of any professional translator. However, perfect knowledge of foreign language does not mean that translator would be able to translate a scientific text properly. Scientific terminology may be misunderstood by translator and it will cause considerable distortion of sense in the translated material. To be able to translate scientific texts properly, it is necessary to know the basic features of scientific style in general.
The general tendency is to consider translation as something that anybody can do with the help of an adequate dictionary, but the fact is that producing a written text using another text as a basis is much more complex phenomenon that what is commonly believed. The complexity be evident comes even more evident when the text in question deals with specialized subjects such finance, banking, economics other like. "In this particular case, when words belonging to so-called General English appear next to specific terms and within a specific on text, they contain nuances that must be accounted for in the final translation. The set of terms gathered together in a text and considered more or less specific establishes a helpful context for the reader to interpret and subsequently to translate. In other words, the translator will be able to process and understand the information he has at his disposal. Such a contextual aid becomes much more evident when translating a text of an economic nature, making it practically impossible to analyze outside its context."[21,7]
Scientific style is characterized by logically built sentences, semantic accuracy, informative abundance, objectivity in presenting materials and hidden emotionality. Terminological units and complex grammatical structures help to implement all the features of scientific style.
Thus, translation of scientific texts involves the usage of standardized language arrangement. Ambiguous meaning or misinterpretation of concepts and terms are not acceptable in scientific texts and scientific translations. Translation of scientific texts requires clear presentation of a text with its fullest compliance with the source text. Such harmony can be achieved only by a professional translator highly skilled both in the subject matter of the scientific text and stylistics.
Those translators and interpreters who cope brilliantly with translation of general vocabulary can face some difficulties while translating scientific materials. "Errors in translation mostly result from the nonequivalence between the source and the target languages."[18,20] However, good translators with encyclopedic knowledge and linguistic knowledge of both the source and target languages know how to deal with them; therefore, "errors can indicate the quality of translation but in the same time they can reveal what is go in on in the translator's thinking process"[20,68]
Scientific style of any language involves usage of certain lexical and grammatical language materials. It means that scientific translation from one language into another will require correlation of grammatical structures and lexical material of one language with the other taking into consideration peculiarities of scientific style in general. Translation of scientific texts into Russian is not an easy task, because it involves both perfect knowledge of Russian and English and good knowledge of the subject of a scientific text. Moreover, translation of scientific materials requires knowledge of structure and rules of formatting texts both in source and target language.
It is necessary to pay special attention to the aspects of translation of terminological units. To achieve the adequacy of translation certain factors should be considered. Such factors depend on qualities of a term and compliance with the rules of translation of specific texts.
Such factors, or conditions, can be divided into general ones (they are specified by the quality of the term, specifics of the source and target language and rules of correlation of the two languages) and particular ones (they depend on the type and genre of the source text and characteristics of this or that term in it).
First of all it is necessary to enumerate three general conditions of adequate translation of terms. Firstly, certain separate terms should be translated adequately. Secondly, each translated term should be checked from the point of view of terminology that appears in source and target languages and denote a system of terms of certain science ( here economy). Thirdly, the differences of terms should be taken into consideration. Such differences are determined by specifics of thought transfer in each of these languages.
These three conditions have to be taken into consideration when selecting a particular method of translation. The existing classification of methods of terms translation should be examined.
The most widespread methods of translation are listed below.
1. An optimal method of translation is to find an equivalent for a term in the target language. This method can be applied only when both countries of the target and source languages have the same level of social development or had this level at some period of the history.
2. A new term in the target language can be created by transfer of another meaning to an existing word under the influence of the term of the source language.
3. If the structure of lexical unit to be translated is the same in both languages, it is a semantic calque. Due to the usage of calques the structure of a term created in the source language complies with the norms of the source language, and structure of a term created in the target language conforms to the target language. The one common thing here is the semantics of terms; that is why this method is called semantic calque.
4. If the structure of lexical unit is borrowed in the course of translation with this very unit, it represents a structural calque. This is an element-by-element translation of a complex lexical unit where each word element from the target language corresponds to each element of the source language and brings a new model in the target language. Some of such borrowed models find their place in the target language as a result of calquing, others do not (they are used independently in structural calques). These are the merits and the drawbacks of calquing.
5. If semantics, structure and form (sound composition and spelling) are borrowed, this method of translation is called “borrowing”. Still, it is necessary to distinguish borrowings, which depend on direct contacts of two languages, and internationalisms, which are built primarily on Greek and Latin elements and stipulated by traditional peculiarities of European culture based on classical education. As for the borrowings, they can be seen differently. The borrowing of term can be allowed when the term “comes” to the language accompanying a new concept or a new objet from the source language.
6. Sometimes terms are to be translated descriptively. This method of translation is primarily used for non-equivalent terms that reflect realities of a particular country.
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